Preloader

Charles Csuri: Hummingbird (1968)

“Professor Charles Csuri’s computer film, Hummingbird, was produced by digital scanning of an original hand-drawing of the bird. The computer translated the drawing into xy plotting coordinates and processed variations on the drawing, assembling, disassembling, and distorting its perspectives. Thus the images were not computer-generated so much as computer-manipulated. There’s no actual animation in the sense of separately-moving parts. […]

Read More

John Whitney’s “Catalog” (1961) & Permutations (1966)

John Whitney’s, one of the fathers of computer animation, “used a mechanical analogue computer of his own invention to create motion-picture and television title sequences and commercials. The following year, he assembled a record of the visual effects he had perfected using his device, titled simply Catalogue. In 1966, IBM awarded John Whitney, Sr. its […]

Read More


From Avant Garde artist Alex Hay to GRL

As part of the 9 Evenings: theatre and engineering which took place at the Armory in NYC, “Alex Hay gave a very austere solo dance accompanied by the amplified sounds of his brain waves, heartbeat, muscle and eye movements.” – Jack Burnham Beyond Modern Sculpture. There is a great description of the event here and […]

Read More